DES - Overview and Encryption

A slecture on Cryptography by student Divya Agarwal and Katie Marsh

Partly based on the Cryptography Summer 2015 lecture material of Prof. Paar.

## Contents

### Overview of DES Algorithm

• DES is a Symmetric cipher: uses same key for encryption and decryption
• Uses 16 rounds which all perform the identical operation
• Different subkey(48 bit) in each round derived from main key

### Internal structure of DES

1. Initial Permutaion(IP) : This is the first thing that is seen in the expanded view of DES block in Fig 1.

• IP is a bitwise permutation or simple crosswiring in hardware.
• The corsswiring is done according to the table(left) given in Fig 2.
• The IP has no effect on the DES security at all.

2. DES Encryption Round - Feistel Networks

• DES structure is a Feistel network
• Advantage: encryption and decryption differ only in keyschedule( explained later )
• The encryption block for round 1 in Fig 3 takes an input of 64 bit data permuted in the IP
• Plaintext is split into 32-bit halves $L_i$ and $R_i$
• $R_i$ is fed into the function f, the output of which is then XORed with $L_i$
• Left and right half halves are swapped at the end of one encryption round
• Each encryption round can be expressed as :

$L_i = R_{i-1}$

$R_i = L_{i-1} \oplus f(R_{i-1},k_i)$

• And as seen in Fig 1, we have sixteen such rounds.
• And the Left and Right side bits are swapped again before the Final Permutation(FP) as shown in Fig 4.

3. The f-funtion(inside the feistel network)

• Main operation of DES
• Inputs to f function are $R_{i-1}$ and round key $k_i$
• It has 4 main steps in Fig 5 :
 ** Expansion block E
** XOR with round key
** S-box substitution (eight of them)
** Permutation


3.1 The Expansion fucntion E

• The main purpose of the expansion funtion is to increase diffusion in the input $R_{i-1}$ bits.
• It is done using the table shown in Fig 6.

3.2 XOR with round key

• Bitwise XOR of the round key $k_i$ and the output of the expansion function E
• We take a 48-bit expanded message bit and XOR with 48-bit key input and the output data is also 48-bit (Fig 5)

[Round keys are derived from the main key in the DES keyschedule later in the notes]

3.3 The DES S-Box substitution

• Eight substitution tables which form the core security of DES (Refer book)
• Take 6 bits of input and gives 4-bit output
• Non-linear and resistant to differential cryptanalysis

3.4 The Permutation P

• This is the last step in the f-fucntion in Fig 5.
• It is also bitiwse permutation, which introduces diffusion using the table in Fig 7.
• Output bits of one S-Box effect several S-Boxes in next round.
• Diffusion by E, S-Boxes and P guarantees that after Round 5 every bit is a function of each key bit and each plaintext bit.

The complete lecture on DES by Prof. Paar can be found here.

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