Line 1: | Line 1: | ||

− | == THE DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX == | + | == THE DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX == |

+ | == Definition == | ||

− | + | Definition: Let A = <nowiki>[aij]</nowiki> be an n x n matrix. The '''determinant''' function, denoted by '''det''', is defined by | |

− | Definition: Let A = <nowiki>[aij]</nowiki> be an n x n matrix. | + | |

− | det(A) = | + | det(A) = <math>\sum{a1j1 a2j2... anjn}</math> |

− | where the summation is over all permutations j1, j2... jn of the set S = {1, 2, ..., n}. The sign is taken as + or - according to whether the permutation j1, j2, ... jn is even or odd. | + | where the summation is over all permutations j1, j2... jn of the set S = {1, 2, ..., n}. The sign is taken as + or - according to whether the permutation j1, j2, ... jn is even or odd. |

− | '''2 x 2 Matrices''' | + | '''2 x 2 Matrices''' |

− | '''3 x 3 Matrices''' | + | '''3 x 3 Matrices''' |

− | '''4 x 4 Matrices''' | + | '''4 x 4 Matrices''' |

− | == Example (2 x 2 Matrix) == | + | == Example (2 x 2 Matrix) == |

− | + | ||

− | + | [4, 2 ; -3 ; 1] | |

+ | == Example (3 x 3 Matrix) == | ||

− | == Example (4 x 4 Matrix) == | + | == Example (4 x 4 Matrix) == |

+ | == Important Properties of the Determinant == | ||

− | + | - The determinant of the transpose of a matrix will be the same as the determinant of the original matrix. | |

− | - The determinant of the transpose of a matrix will be the same as the determinant of the original matrix. | + | |

− | - If two rows in the matrix are interchanged, the determinant will be the negative of the determinant of the original matrix. | + | - If two rows in the matrix are interchanged, the determinant will be the negative of the determinant of the original matrix. |

− | - If two rows or columns in a matrix are the same, the determinant will be zero. | + | - If two rows or columns in a matrix are the same, the determinant will be zero. |

− | - If there is a row of zeros in the matrix, the determinant will be zero. | + | - If there is a row of zeros in the matrix, the determinant will be zero. |

− | - If a row or column in a matrix was multiplied by a real number, then the determinant will be that real number multiplied by the determinant of the original matrix. | + | - If a row or column in a matrix was multiplied by a real number, then the determinant will be that real number multiplied by the determinant of the original matrix. |

− | - If the matrix is either an upper or a lower triangular matrix, the determinant will be the product of the elements on the main diagonal. | + | - If the matrix is either an upper or a lower triangular matrix, the determinant will be the product of the elements on the main diagonal. |

− | - If two matrices are n x n, then the determinant of one multiplied by the determinant of the other is the determinant of the full matrix of the two next to each other. | + | - If two matrices are n x n, then the determinant of one multiplied by the determinant of the other is the determinant of the full matrix of the two next to each other. |

+ | <br> | ||

− | == Nonsingular and Similar Matrices == | + | == Nonsingular and Similar Matrices == |

− | + | ||

− | + | Definition: A square matrix is called '''nonsingular''' if its determinant is not equal to zero. | |

− | - For | + | - For square matrices, then the linear combination of the matrix has a nontrivial solution if and only if the matrix is NOT nonsingular. |

− | - | + | - For nonsingular matrices, the determinant of the inverse of that matrix is equal to 1 over the determinant of the matrix. |

+ | - If two matrices are similar matrices, then the determinants of the two are equal. | ||

+ | |||

+ | <br> | ||

---- | ---- | ||

+ | |||

[[Category:MA265Fall2012Alvarado]] | [[Category:MA265Fall2012Alvarado]] |

## Revision as of 13:22, 8 December 2012

## Contents

## THE DETERMINANT OF A MATRIX

## Definition

Definition: Let A = [aij] be an n x n matrix. The **determinant** function, denoted by **det**, is defined by

det(A) = $ \sum{a1j1 a2j2... anjn} $

where the summation is over all permutations j1, j2... jn of the set S = {1, 2, ..., n}. The sign is taken as + or - according to whether the permutation j1, j2, ... jn is even or odd.

**2 x 2 Matrices**

**3 x 3 Matrices**

**4 x 4 Matrices**

## Example (2 x 2 Matrix)

[4, 2 ; -3 ; 1]

## Example (3 x 3 Matrix)

## Example (4 x 4 Matrix)

## Important Properties of the Determinant

- The determinant of the transpose of a matrix will be the same as the determinant of the original matrix.

- If two rows in the matrix are interchanged, the determinant will be the negative of the determinant of the original matrix.

- If two rows or columns in a matrix are the same, the determinant will be zero.

- If there is a row of zeros in the matrix, the determinant will be zero.

- If a row or column in a matrix was multiplied by a real number, then the determinant will be that real number multiplied by the determinant of the original matrix.

- If the matrix is either an upper or a lower triangular matrix, the determinant will be the product of the elements on the main diagonal.

- If two matrices are n x n, then the determinant of one multiplied by the determinant of the other is the determinant of the full matrix of the two next to each other.

## Nonsingular and Similar Matrices

Definition: A square matrix is called **nonsingular** if its determinant is not equal to zero.

- For square matrices, then the linear combination of the matrix has a nontrivial solution if and only if the matrix is NOT nonsingular.

- For nonsingular matrices, the determinant of the inverse of that matrix is equal to 1 over the determinant of the matrix.

- If two matrices are similar matrices, then the determinants of the two are equal.