Line 16: Line 16:
  
 
left sided: <math>x[n]</math> such that <math>x[n] = 0</math> &forall; n > n<sub>0</sub>
 
left sided: <math>x[n]</math> such that <math>x[n] = 0</math> &forall; n > n<sub>0</sub>
 +
 +
both sided: <math>x[n]</math> such that <math>x[n] = 0</math> &forall; n > n<sub>1</sub> and n < n<sub>2</sub> n<sub>1</sub> < n<sub>2</sub>
  
 
neither sided: <math>x[n]</math> has finite duration, meaning <math>x[n] = 0</math> &forall; n < n<sub>1</sub> and n > n<sub>2</sub>,  n<sub>1</sub> < n<sub>2</sub>
 
neither sided: <math>x[n]</math> has finite duration, meaning <math>x[n] = 0</math> &forall; n < n<sub>1</sub> and n > n<sub>2</sub>,  n<sub>1</sub> < n<sub>2</sub>
Line 51: Line 53:
 
::(i) includes the entire complex plane
 
::(i) includes the entire complex plane
 
::(ii) x[n] has no poles except maybe z = 0 or z = <math>\infty</math>
 
::(ii) x[n] has no poles except maybe z = 0 or z = <math>\infty</math>
::(iii)
+
::(iii) if for x[n], n<sub>1</sub> &#8805; 0, z = <math>\infty</math> is included
 +
::(iv) if for x[n], n<sub>2</sub> &#8804; 0, z = 0 is included
 +
::(v) if n<sub>1</sub> < 0 and n<sub>2</sub> > 0, then neither z = 0 or z = <math>\infty</math> is included

Revision as of 22:40, 1 December 2019

Z Transform and LTI System Properties Study Guide

Introduction

This page will go over some of my conclusions about properties of the z-transform and discuss some examples of how they may be used to draw conclusions about LTI systems and digital filters. This topic assumes some basic knowledge of the z-transform and signal processing, however some definitions are provided below as a refresher or for reference. The information provided is intended to clarify or expand on some of the z-transform properties presented in class. Some of the information includes statements or arguments to validate or clarify claims; these are intended to aid understanding but not substitute for a proof.


definitions

z-transform: $ X(z) = \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x[n]z^{-n} $ z ∈ ℂ

DTFT: $ X(\omega) = \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x[n]e^{-j\omega n} $

right sided: $ x[n] $ such that $ x[n] = 0 $ ∀ n < n0

left sided: $ x[n] $ such that $ x[n] = 0 $ ∀ n > n0

both sided: $ x[n] $ such that $ x[n] = 0 $ ∀ n > n1 and n < n2 n1 < n2

neither sided: $ x[n] $ has finite duration, meaning $ x[n] = 0 $ ∀ n < n1 and n > n2, n1 < n2

Absolutely Summable: $ x[n] $ is absolutely summable if: $ \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} |x[n]| = c $, where $ c $ is a constant.


Relationship Between Fourier Transform and Z Transform

In the z-transform definition above, z is any complex number, which can be represented in polar coordinates by $ z = re^{j\omega} $ Then the x-transform can be written as: $ X(z) = X(re^{j\omega}) = \sum_{n=-\infty}^{\infty} x[n](re)^{-j \omega n} $. Thus is r = 1, meaning that z is constrained to z = $ e^{j\omega} $, then the z-transform is equivalent to the DTFT, and the DTFT is the z-transform constrained with z constrained to the unit circle in the z-plane.

Since the z-transform exists outside the unit circle, it is useful for analyzing signal that don't have a DTFT, analyzing LTI system stability, and looking at the transfer function characteristics among other uses.

Summary of Z Transform Properties

(a) The DTFT(x[n]) converges if the ROC of X(z) contains the unit circle on the z-plane.
(b) No poles of X(z) are included in the ROC of X(z), poles of X(z) shape the ROC.
(c) For Right Sided x[n], the ROC of X(z):
(i) is generally defined by |z| > z0 (outside a circle in the z-plane)
(ii) includes $ \infty $ if n0 ≥ 0
(iii) z = 0 could possibly be included in the ROC
(iv) the farthest pole from the origin lies just inside |z0|
(d) For Left Sided x[n], the ROC of X(z):
(i) is generally defined by |z| < z0 (inside a circle in the z-plane)
(ii) includes z = 0 if n0 ≤ 0
(iii) x = $ \infty $ could possibly be included
(iv) the nearest pole to the origin lies just outside of |z0|
(e) For Both Sided x[n], the ROC of X(z):
(i) is generally a ring in the z-plane such as z1 < |z| < z2
(ii) does not include z = 0 or z = $ \infty $
(f) For finite duration x[n] (neither sided), the ROC of X(z):
(i) includes the entire complex plane
(ii) x[n] has no poles except maybe z = 0 or z = $ \infty $
(iii) if for x[n], n1 ≥ 0, z = $ \infty $ is included
(iv) if for x[n], n2 ≤ 0, z = 0 is included
(v) if n1 < 0 and n2 > 0, then neither z = 0 or z = $ \infty $ is included

Alumni Liaison

Ph.D. 2007, working on developing cool imaging technologies for digital cameras, camera phones, and video surveillance cameras.

Buyue Zhang